How is HIV transmitted. How do you get HIV

There are several ways how is HIV transmitted (ways of HIV transmission):

  • Unsafe (without a condom) penetrative sexual contact. Moreover, the presence of infections from sexually transmitted diseases, increases the risk of HIV transmission during intercourse up to 2-5 times, as they entail the appearance of the open ulcers, such as herpes. The risk of HIV-infection transmission is considered to be particularly high during anal intercourse (as compared to vaginal), for the mucous membrane of rectum gets injured and the virus gets into blood.
  • Sharing or reuse of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. Statistically, 80% of immediate contagion among drug abusers occurs through a common syringe;
  • The use of unsterile equipment for medical purposes as well as for tattoo and body-piercing;
  • The deep prick of someone with a drug abuser’s needle having infected blood on it (with HIV symptoms);
  • The use of other people’s shaving accessories and toothbrushes with blood remaining on them;
  • Transmission of the virus from mother with HIV infection to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. It should be noted that the virus is unable to penetrate through the placental barrier. Therefore, the risk of immunodeficiency virus transmission from mother to her child can be significantly reduced if a complex of special measures is carried out: intensive AIDS treatment during pregnancy, special methods of obstetric aid at childbirth and complete replacement of breastfeeding with artificial. With these conditions accomplished the risk to catch HIV doesn’t exceed 10-12%. We are able to find out, whether a child has HIV symptoms when he is 1.5-2 years old. By this time the mother’s antibodies have been replaced with his own.

 

How is HIV not transmitted?
The subject of HIV and AIDS causes fear and anxiety which quite often are overstated. People fear to catch HIV through casual contact and see HIV-positive people as lepers. Actually, these fears are exaggerated and interaction with a person having HIV infection symptoms (HIV positive) in daily routine activities is safe.

 

HIV cannot be transmitted:

  • Through handshake, embarrassing and other casual contacts. Undamaged skin is an insuperable obstacle to the virus;
  • Through tears or sweat. First of all, the HIV concentration is too low, secondly, the LYSOZYME contained in these secretions inactivates and even partly destroys the virus;
  • Through coughing and sneezing. Even if there’re open sores on your face and someone with AIDS sneezed at you at a short distance – the poor viral concentration is unable to infect you;
  • When sharing utensils and cutlery – the virus loses its vitality in your stomach;
  • When sharing the bed linen;
  • When sharing a bathtub and/or a closet basin. Neither urine nor stool has got enough concentration of the virus for transmission;
  • Having a bath, sauna and swimming in the pool together, as the virus rapidly gets inactivated in the aquatic environment;
  • When going in for sports together HIV infection not transmitted;
  • In public transport, apartment and public places. HIV rapidly loses its viability upon desiccation, exposed to bright sunlight (ultraviolet effect), under the influence of high temperature and other environmental factors;
  • When visiting a doctor, a dentist, for instance, or through the blood transfusion. There’s no risk to transmit HIV, if a doctor observes the rules of medical equipment sterilization.
  • From insect bites, because mosquitoes inject their own saliva, not the previous victim’s blood (although, the infection may occur, if a mosquito filled with HIV-infected blood is crushed on the open wound);
  • It’s not transmitted by kissing or through the saliva, as the virus in one’s saliva is not concentrated enough to infect you. Of course, sores and ulcers in the mouth pose hazard to infection. But actually, both partners are supposed to have a bleeding wound in the oral cavity to transmit the virus.